Install Procedure for samba¶
Requirements¶To install samba you will need the following:
- a installed and supported operating system (e.g. CentOS 7.x)
- a fast internet connection
this is based on http://jehurst.wordpress.com/2011/01/17/rhel-6-for-the-clueless-samba-server/
and the samba for groups part is taken from https://www.techrepublic.com/article/how-to-set-up-samba-shares-for-groups/
I’ve found a couple of tutorials on Samba, but neither one had all the right information. After fighting with it a bit, this is what I did to get it working.
Install Samba by logging into a Terminal as root:
yum install samba
if you want to have access to samba-shares you also want to
yum install samba-client
If SeLinux is active, then it might be necessary to set some samba-related variables depending on the share-location.
This and more information can be found at http://selinuxproject.org/page/SambaRecipes
setsebool -P samba_domain_controller on
samba_export_all Flag will allow to share any folder on the machine, use with care.
setsebool -P samba_export_all_rw=1
setsebool -P samba_enable_home_dirs=1
Setup a shared directory¶
Create shared directory; I used /home/shared:
mkdir /home/shared chmod a+w /home/shared chcon -t samba_share_t /home/shared
That last line insures the SELinux security system knows to allow outside systems to poke around in that folder. Now anyone using this computer can move files in and out of the folder, as well as the Samba users.
Setup a samba user¶
Add a Samba user. This is a different task than simply adding a user account. There is a GUI tool for adding Linux user accounts to the machine for them to use the computer itself. However, Samba users must be handled differently, so that the system forces them to use the Samba server.
useradd -c "Real Name" -d /home/samba-username -s /sbin/nologin samba-username
That’s all one line. As usual, substitute the actual Real Name and samba-username in the command above. Then create the Samba password. Remember what we said about coming up with good passwords:
smbpasswd -a samba-username
It will prompt for the password, which you type in blindly:
New SMB password: Retype new SMB password: Added user username.
This will open the default text editor. Scan down the file until you see something like this:
root = administrator admin nobody = guest pcguest smbguest
Immediately below this, add a line with this format:
username = samba-username
so CentOS recognizes the person logging in from the Winbox by their samba-username.
Setup a samba config¶
Find the section headed '[global]'. Change the workgroup name to whatever your Windows computer will be seeking. Default is workgroup in lower case letters. You’ll need to remove the semicolon in front of the next line and provide a proper hostname for the netbios name, which would be the name you gave your RHEL computer during installation, again in lower case. Remove the semicolon from the next line and the IP address numbers from the sample; all we need are the two interfaces lo eth0. Below that is a line with hostsallow as a model. Below that, start a new line with the same indentation:
hosts allow = 127. 192.168.1.
The “127.” is the IP address for everything on your own machine. The other (192.168.1.) is the private LAN network I use for my home router; by leaving off the last section after the dot, it automatically includes every computer with that prefix, which is reserved for LANs.
If you want to bind to specific interfaces only you maybe want to consider
interfaces = lo vboxnet0 192.168.56.1/24 bind interfaces only = yes
Go all the way to the bottom of the file and add some lines. I named my shared directory “shared”. Thus, the section heading should be named the same:
[shared] path = /home/shared writeable = yes browseable = yes read only = No guest ok = Yes public = Yes valid users = username1 username2 create mask = 0666 directory mask = 0777
if you want to have a trash-bin on the share, you might consider adding following section:
vfs object = recycle recycle:repository = .deleted/%U recycle:keeptree = Yes recycle:touch = Yes recycle:versions = Yes recycle:maxsixe = 0 recycle:exclude = *.tmp recycle:exclude_dir = /tmp recycle:noversions = *.bak
Now change the firewall to allow Samba to get through. You can use the tool in System > Administration > Firewall. Simply scan down the list to Samba and checkmark the box. Optionally checkmark IPP printer sharing. Then hit “Apply”.
or in Textmode
firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=samba firewall-cmd --reload
enable and start of the services with
systemctl enable smb.service systemctl enable nmb.service systemctl restart smb.service systemctl restart nmb.service
following commands might be helpful:
findsmb smbclient //host/share -U username
Samba working with groups¶
Create the necessary directory and group
Before we configure Samba, let's create the necessary directory and group. We'll then add users to the group.
I'll be creating a new share called editorial. Create a new directory with the command:
sudo mkdir -p /opt/editorial
Now let's create the group editorial with the command:
sudo groupadd editorial
Now we change the group ownership and permissions of the directory with the commands:
sudo chgrp editorial /opt/editorial
sudo chmod -R 770 /opt/editorial
Now we add users to the new group with the command:
sudo usermod -a -G editorial USER
Where USER is the username to add to the group.
If you ever need to remove a user from a group, this can be done with the command:
sudo deluser USER GROUP
Where USER is the username and GROUP is the group name.
Finally, we must add the users to Samba. This is done with the smbpasswd command like so:
sudo smbpasswd -a USER
sudo smbpasswd -e USER
Where USER is the username to be added. The first command adds the user and the second command enables the user. When issuing the first of the above commands, you will be prompted to create a new Samba password for the user.
Now we come to the actual Samba configuration. The first thing we're going to do is make a backup copy of our Samba configuration file. Issue the command:
sudo mv /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.BAK
Now create a new configuration file with the following command:
sudo nano /etc/samba/smb.conf
In this new file, we'll add the following contents to share out our editorial directory to the group editorial (customize as needed):
workgroup = WORKGROUP
server string = Editorial Server
netbios name = Ubuntu
security = user
map to guest = bad user
dns proxy = no
- SHARES ####
path = /opt/editorial
browsable = yes
writable = yes
guest ok = yes
read only = no
valid users = @editorial
Save and close that file. Restart Samba with the commands:
sudo systemctl restart smbd.service
sudo systemctl restart nmbd.service
You can now point one of your machines to the newly configured Samba share. So long as the user is a member of the editorial group, they'll be able to log on with their username and samba password.
Even more flexibility
By working with groups in Samba, you can make your admin life slightly easier, while making Samba more flexible. With this way you can add and remove users to the group with ease (which, in turn, would revoke their access to the Samba share).